Most of the functions and skills shown above have been replaced by a newer approach. Modern copiers are easier to use, and produce better results, than the old "duplicating machines." Most PCs now have scanners and printers, and so many offices do not even have a central copiers any longer. Dictation is perhaps used by a few pampered executives who have yet to learn how to use a PC keyboard, but shorthand has probably been replaced by cheap tape recorders. E-mail now replaces most correspondence that used to be done with letters. Faster and cheaper, people now do their own correpondence, and word processors help with spelling, helping to maintain an appearance of literacy that used to be a secretary's job.